Welcoming a baby into the world is both a wonderful and confusing time. Along with all the joy and love parenthood brings, there are many concerns you’ll face once your little one makes his appearance.
Your newborn can develop a number of deficiencies and conditions—from eczema to jaundice—and you may not know what they are or how to deal with them. One of those “What’s this here?” conditions is cradle cap.
But before you start to panic and rush your baby off to the emergency room, let the experts at Mustela put your mind at ease about this all-too-common skin condition. Along the way, we’ll answer questions such as:
- What is cradle cap?
- Should you be worried about cradle cap?
- How common is cradle cap?
- Is cradle cap painful or contagious?
- What does cradle cap look like?
- How can I tell cradle cap apart from other conditions?
- What causes cradle cap?
- Are there any tests for cradle cap?
After we answer the most common cradle cap questions, we’ll show you six ways to prevent and treat this common skin condition.
What Is Cradle Cap?
Cradle cap is the common name for seborrheic dermatitis. We know those probably aren’t terms you come across every day, so allow us to elaborate. Here are the definitions you need to know:
- Seborrhea (seborrheic is the adjective form) — Overactivity of the sebaceous glands characterized by excessive secretion of sebum resulting in an oily coating, crusts, or scales on the skin.
- Sebaceous glands — Small glands in the skin that secrete a lubricating oily matter (sebum) into the hair follicles to lubricate the skin and hair.
- Dermatitis — A condition of the skin in which it becomes red, swollen, and sore. Usually resulting from direct irritation by an external agent or an allergic reaction.
Putting all that scientific jargon to work, it tells us that cradle cap is red (or yellow), irritated, oily skin that may form discolored, scaly, crusty patches. Still not 100% clear? In the simplest sense, it’s basically infant dandruff. However, dandruff shampoo isn’t the solution to the problem.
Strangely enough, cradle cap doesn’t just appear on the head. This is the predominant location, yes, but it can also flare up on your baby’s forehead, eyebrows, ears, diaper area, and other parts of his body.
Should You Be Worried About Cradle Cap?
The simple answer is NO. It’s completely harmless, not contagious, and usually disappears by your baby’s first birthday. One misconception about cradle cap is that it’s an indication of poor hygiene. This is false.
As you’ll see in the next few sections, cradle cap is the result of your baby’s body adjusting to its new environment. It’s also important to remember that this skin condition is very common. Doctors estimate that about half of all babies will exhibit some form of cradle cap during their first year of life.
That doesn’t mean you should just disregard cradle cap completely. Your baby’s body will usually work through the problem and stabilize itself on its own. In some rare instances, though, the scaly, irritated patches can get infected. This is most often due to excessive scratching from fingernails, clothing, or bedding. Again, infections are rare, but keep an eye on your baby’s cradle cap nonetheless.
Is Cradle Cap Painful Or Contagious?
Many parents are concerned that their little one is experiencing pain from cradle cap or that they will spread the condition to other children. Well, we’ve got good news! Cradle cap is neither painful nor contagious.
As we mentioned above, common cases of cradle cap are not much different from dandruff. This means that most of the time, your baby isn’t feeling any pain as a result of cradle cap. However, in severe cases, cradle cap may cause serious discomfort. If your little one’s skin seems inflamed or infected, see a pediatrician right away.
While medical professionals aren’t exactly sure what causes cradle cap (more on this later), it is definitely not contagious. There’s no need to worry about your little one spreading cradle cap to siblings, playmates, or other children they come into contact with.
What Does Cradle Cap Look Like?
Cradle cap can vary in intensity depending on your baby’s body. At the low end of the scale, it may manifest as slight redness and flaky skin (see below).
At the other end of the scale, the skin condition can result in extreme redness and a literal cap on the top of the head.
Symptoms are similar when they appear on other parts of the body.
How Can You Tell Cradle Cap Apart From Other Conditions?
In some cases, you might not be sure whether your baby has cradle cap or a different skin condition. This is especially true if the cradle cap is occurring somewhere besides your baby’s head, where it most commonly appears. So how can cradle cap be identified?
Cradle cap is just one type of rash that your little one might develop, but it has a few distinguishing features. First, cradle cap often creates small patches of crusty skin that feel hard and rough to the touch. These patches may be raised from your baby’s body in little clumps. And, of course, cradle cap is most likely to form on your baby’s head, face, and neck.
Other skin conditions, like dry skin or eczema, are different from cradle cap is several ways. Both dry skin and eczema typically result in dry, flaky skin that will rub off easily. Cradle cap, on the other hand, is characterized by a buildup of dead skin cells that are stuck to your little one’s skin.
In addition, dry skin and eczema are more likely to be found anywhere on your baby’s body, as opposed to just their head, neck, and face. Finally, cradle cap will feel slightly oily, although rough at the same time, whereas dry skin and eczema will ordinarily feel tender and dry.
What Causes Cradle Cap?
According to the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), about 10 percent of baby boys and 9.5 percent of baby girls develop cradle cap. And although the condition is more or less common, little is definitively known about what exactly causes cradle cap. This is one reason it may be hard to treat or prevent.
Still, there are a number of factors that doctors believe could contribute to your little one developing the condition.
One popular theory holds that the baby’s sebaceous glands (the ones that produce skin oil) aren’t working at full strength yet because of mommy’s hormones (from gestation and nursing).
But don’t feel bad. As we said, cradle cap is extremely common, and it’s not your fault. Your baby’s glands’ overactivity, which happens as a result of your hormones, leads to an excess of oil. When that oil is present, dead skin cells that should be shed off naturally get caught in the oil and, as a result, form clumps.
Doctors believe that the glands sometimes work harder because of the influence of the mother’s hormones that are still present in your baby’s body even after they leave the womb.
That’s just a theory, though. As logical as it sounds, don’t let it change your nursing habits. Your baby’s body will get used to the new environment (hormones included) during the first twelve months of his life.
A second theory holds that Malassezia, a specific strain of yeast, is the cause of cradle cap. When Malassezia colonizes on the surface of your baby’s skin, redness and inflammation form as your baby’s body fights off the yeast. This may lead to a buildup of sebum and dead skin cells—otherwise known as cradle cap.
Sometimes — though very rarely — generalized cradle cap may be linked to immunodeficiency. Immunodeficiency in your baby is the failure of the immune system to protect your little one’s body from infection. This is due to either the absence or insufficiency of some component process or substance.
If this is the case, there will be other symptoms in addition to just cradle cap, and your doctor can diagnose and treat your child.
A third possibility is that cradle cap is the result of a fungal infection. While additional research is needed, some medical professionals believe cradle cap may be related to other fungal skin conditions, like athlete's foot.
Whatever the true cause of cradle cap may be, doctors know for sure that it is not caused by poor hygiene, an allergic reaction, or a bacterial infection.
We also know that it’s a normal condition and absolutely nothing to worry about. One study performed in Australia found that as many as 10 percent of children under five years old have cradle cap at any given time! That’s quite a bit, but the condition normally goes away in about a week with proper treatment.
Are There Any Tests For Cradle Cap?
Unfortunately, no. But if you visit a doctor, she will be able to diagnose cradle cap just by looking at your baby’s skin. And that can be relieving during the high-stress days of early parenthood.
Remember, cradle cap is mostly harmless and usually clears up on its own. Often, it goes away by baby’s first birthday, but in some children, it may not clear up until they are between two and four years old.
Still, there are a number of methods you can safely try to aid in the removal of cradle cap at home. Just keep in mind that when dealing with your baby’s delicate skin, it is always important to be careful with the products you use, choosing those that are natural and safe.
What Are The Best Ways To Prevent & Treat Cradle Cap?
1) Bathe Your Baby No More Than Once Per Day
It may be tempting to think that bathing your baby more often will help get rid of cradle cap. However, the opposite is true! Bathing your baby too frequently can dry out their skin, which will cause their sebaceous glands to release excess oil — which may be the reason behind your baby’s cradle cap to begin with!
Bathe your little one once per day at most. Just make sure to clean their diaper area thoroughly when changing dirty diapers. In-between baths, you can also keep your baby’s skin clean with a gentle micellar water, like Mustela's No Rinse Cleansing Water.
2) Use The Right Baby Shampoo
To help reduce the chances of your baby developing cradle cap, wash your baby’s hair and scalp with a gentle shampoo two or three times a week. We recommend Mustela’s Foam Shampoo because it’s formulated to gently cleanse and to rinse away the flakes associated with cradle cap.
3) Take A Vitamin B Supplement If You’re Nursing
The B vitamin biotin is important for healthy skin. Normally, you get plenty of biotin from your diet. But sometimes, pregnant and nursing moms can develop a deficiency of this important nutrient. Because of the role this vitamin plays in skin maintenance, some believe taking a biotin supplement can help treat cradle cap when the mother has a deficiency.
Before you run out and buy all the biotin on the shelf, keep in mind there’s no hard evidence that this works. At the very least, discuss with your doctor the possibility of taking the supplement before you add it to your daily routine.
4) Brush Your Baby’s Scalp With A Soft Brush
For an added bit of prevention and treatment, we suggest brushing your baby’s scalp with a soft brush while he’s in the bath. Any baby hair brush will do a great job at gently removing the scaly skin. Just massage your baby’s scalp with the brush, but be sure not to pick at the scales (this can cause irritation).
If you can’t get ahold of a soft hairbrush, or if your baby doesn’t like it, you can massage his scalp with a terry cloth towel while drying him off.
5) Apply Baby Oil Before Brushing
If brushing your baby’s scalp with a soft brush doesn’t seem to be working, try adding a drop or two of baby oil before you start brushing. Then, while you brush, you’ll also be working the baby oil into your child’s scalp for a boost of healing and prevention. Remember to be gentle so you don’t further damage your baby’s sensitive skin.
6) Use A Humidifier
Humidifiers are wonderful for your baby’s skin. This is true whether or not they have cradle cap! It’s best to place the humidifier in your baby’s nursery, or whichever room they sleep in, and to leave it on while they rest.
Humid air keeps your little one’s skin from drying out. This helps get rid of cradle cap because your baby’s skin won’t release as much sebum when it’s already hydrated and well-moisturized. Since excess sebum is thought to be the cause of cradle cap, less sebum means less cradle cap!
7) Be Patient
Remember that cradle cap is the manifestation of an imbalance inside your baby’s body. You can treat the symptoms (the flaky skin), but it may take a while for the condition to completely disappear. Be patient, and continue using products designed to prevent and treat cradle cap, like Mustela’s Foam Shampoo, to defend against future outbreaks.
You can also try our brand-new Cradle Cap Cream, which works to prevent and eliminate cradle cap while soothing your little one’s discomfort. Formulated with a patented avocado ingredient and plant-derived borage oil, this cream reduces the appearance of flakes and moisturizes your baby’s scalp.
8) Consult A Physician
If your baby’s cradle cap doesn’t seem to be getting any better or if it looks infected, visit your doctor or pediatrician. If it’s an extremely bad case of cradle cap, she may prescribe a topical steroid, like hydrocortisone, to help decrease the symptoms.
However, don’t let cradle cap keep you up at night. By following a few simple steps, such as shampooing a few times per week and brushing your baby’s scalp with a soft brush, your baby’s cradle cap will soon disappear.
What To Avoid When Treating Cradle Cap
Always keep in mind that your baby’s skin is incredibly sensitive, so when considering your options for how to get rid of cradle cap, it’s important to avoid using harsh or potentially toxic chemicals.
It’s never a good idea to apply undiluted apple cider vinegar, hydrogen peroxide, or essential oils to your baby’s scalp to treat cradle cap. While these are often touted as home remedies for cradle cap (and a host of other conditions), they can be too strong for your baby’s skin and can cause irritation. Instead, opt for baby-friendly products, like Mustela’s Foam Shampoo.
Consult your pediatrician before using any and all products on your baby, since certain brands and ingredients can be toxic when absorbed through your little one’s skin. Choose to invest in products that are made with natural ingredients and have been proven as safe for babies — ones free from potentially harsh and threatening chemicals.